The human skull contains 22 bones. 8 bones make up the cranium and the other 14 form the lower front of the skull, these are known as the facial bones.
Anatomy of the Skull
Bones of the Cranium
- The Frontal bone is one of the major cranial bones. It comprises of the forehead (squama frontalis) and the upper orbit of the eye (pars orbitalis). The front of the top of the head roughly covers the frontal lobes of the brain.
- The Parietal bones form the largest part of the top and sides of the cranium. There are two parietal bones and each one is shaped roughly like a curved rectangle.
- There are two Temporal bones in the cranium, each supports part of the face known as the temple. The temporal bones are crucial in the anatomy of the ear.
- The Ethmoid bone differs from the other bones in the cranium in that it is a spongy bone opposed to a hard bone. The name derives from the Greek ethmos meaning sieve and divides the nasal cavity from the brain
- There are 2 Sphenoid bones, each is situated behind the eyes at the base of the skull in front of the Temporals. Because of the way it is shaped and situated the Sphenoid bone has contact with all the other cranial bones.
- The Occipital bone forms the back of the skull and the base of the cranium. The bone is pierced by a large oval hole(the foramen magnum) through which runs the spinal cord.
The mandible (jawbone) and vomer are the only bones in the face which are unpaired. The other twelve bones are arranged in pairs which gives the face its symmetry.
The fourteen bones include 2 inferior Nasal Conchae; 2 Lacrimal Bones; 2 Maxillae; 2 Nasal Bones; 2 Palatine Bones; 2 Zygomatic Bones; the Mandible and the Vomer.