The spine consists of 33 bones or vertebrae, 24 of which are separate bones allowing movement and 9 which are fused together. The 5 sections of the spine or vertebral column are the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacrum which includes the coccyz.

  • Cervical spine makes up the neck and has 7 vertibrae. The top two bones are known as the atlas and axis and are different from the others to allow rotation of the skull as well as forwards and backwards.
  • Thoracic spine has 12 vertibrae which the ribs attach to. They are larger than the cervical vertibrae as they have to support more of the bodies weight.
  • Lumbar spine has 5 vertebrae which make up the lower back.
  • Sacrum consists of 5 bones which are fused or stuck together and the coccyx is made up of 4 tiny bones and used to be a tail.

Intervertibral Discs

Each vertibrae is separated by intervertibral discs which are flexible cartilage discs. These allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing or cushioning function as well.

Each disc is made up of two parts, a tougher fibrous outside and a central substance called nucleus pulposus. When a disc is damaged (or prolapsed) it is the squidgy liquid in the middle which often squeezes out putting pressure on the spinal cord causing pain.


Learn more about the skeleton:

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