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Answer: Here is an easy way to remember it..
ABDUCTION - take the "AB" from the word to represent AWAY from BODY
ADDUCTION - take the "ADD" from the word to represent ADDING to the body.
So, in direct answer to your question, it is ABDUCTION which moves the arm away from the body.
Answer: Endurance training:
In sport, endurance training is about developing the energy systems to meet the demands of an event.
There are two main types of endurance - Aerobic and Anaerobic. As far as what actually happens in the body, here are some key points which should help.
Aerobic means 'with oxygen'. During aerobic endurance training, the body is working at a level where the intake of oxygen and fuel is enough to keep the body going with only carbon dioxide and water as waste products through sweat and breathing. This allows for continuous activity.
However, the aerobic threshold is the point at which the anaerobic system starts to operate. This is approximately 75% of your maximum heart rate (see Ask a Teacher question on "Target Zone").
Anaerobic means 'without oxygen'. During anaerobic work, the body is working over that aerobic threshold. This means that the body relies heavily on stored carbohydrates and cannot utilise enough oxygen to sustain activity for long continuous periods. The body goes into oxygen debt and waste products build up (mainly lactic acid).
The anaerobic threshold is the point at which lactic acid builds up to the point where activity is drastically reduced. This is usually between 85% and 90% of your maximum heart rate.
Essentially, to train these systems you need to apply the principle of overload where you are working harder than you did in a previous session. You can train your aerobic or aerobic systems for endurance by cycling, jogging, fartlek, rowing and other continuous training methods.
Answer: The words professional and amateur are used a great deal in different contexts. Quite literally, professional means that the sports-person earns money from what they do. Here are some other meanings often attached to the word professional:
There is sometimes an association with a certain level of performance expected from a sports-person. E.g. A soccer player who demonstrates a very good performance throughout a match may have this performance referred to as "very professional". Boxing is a good example of a sport which draws a distinct difference between professionals and amateurs. Amateur boxing is a very different sport. In amateur boxing, head guards are worn, there is a different scoring system and number of rounds compared with professional boxing. Professional boxers earn money whereas amateurs do not.
Sometimes, a sports-person may be referred to as unprofessional if their conduct is poor. E.g. A cricketer who swears at the umpire may be deemed "unprofessional". There are some gray areas.. for example, a soccer player may well play at a semi-professional level where he / she earns money on a part time basis whilst maintaining another day to day job.
Finally, there is much debate as to whether sport is "true to it's roots" when it turns professional. Many people believe that all sport should stay amateur, and that sport should be participated in for enjoyment, national pride or personal achievement and satisfaction. Motivation in this case is purely intrinsic. Much has been made recently of match fixing in cricket. This is a symptom of professionalism. However, it could be argued that professional sports are more accessible to the public as they attract more money and with money comes a higher media profile. There are many sports which remain amateur, where athletes or performers rely on grants, lottery funds or prize money in order to fund training or to supplement income.
In direct answer to your question, it is generally a combination of whether you are talented enough, whether training and socio-cultural factors are in your favour and whether the sport of your choice has a professional wing. If all these issues are in your favour, then the decision is yours. If they are not, you will have no choice and remain an amateur.
Answer: Eating disorders are chronic illnesses involving the abnormal intake of food. The two most common examples are Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa. It can be easy to get confused as to which one is which. The following definitions should clear up this problem:
Bulimia - The condition whereby a person is obsessed with the fear of becoming fat, and results in the person eating large amounts of food and then vomiting or taking laxatives in order to lose weight?
Anorexia - A chronic illness or eating disorder which results in a persons refusal to eat, becoming dangerously thin with no appetite.