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Health and Fitness

  • The aim of this lesson is to understand what it means to be fit and healthy and what can affect this (Equivalent to UK GCSE Physical Education)

Health is.....

"a state of well-being"

"a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity"


Physcial well-being - You are injury and disease free!

Mental well-being - You do not suffer from metal illness or high levels of stress or anxiety

Social well-being - You believe you have some purpose in society and have friends. You have food, clothes and shelter.


You health can be affected by a number of factors. The following accronym can help you remember them: PLEASED

Personal hygiene - Keeping clean will help you avoid illness

Lifestyle - Your lifestyle is the way you live your life, including activites, your job, rest time etc. A highly stressed or lazy lifestyle will affect your health!

Emotional health - Work, relationships and friends can all cause you to feel either good, or bad! Try to avoid too much stress and anxiety

Alcohol / Drugs - Excessive consumption of alcohol and use of illegal drugs can have negative effects on your physical, emotional and social well-being

Safety - Not being safe and careful, especially in some jobs and sports can cause injuries. Make sure you use the correct equipment!

Environment - Noisy environments can cause stress and lack of sleep. Polluted environments can cause health problems

Diet - Having a well-balanced diet helps to keep you healthy by making sure you get all the nutrients your body needs



Fitness can be either general or specific:


  • You are healthy and can perform daily activities without suffering fatigue.
  • You have: Strength; Speed; Stamina; Suppleness

You also possess:

  • Cardiovascular endurance - so your muscles get enough Oxygen to work effectively
  • Muscular endurance - so your muscles don't get tired easily
  • Good body composition - You have the right percentage of fat versus muscle


  • This is your fitness to play a certain sport at a certain level
  • You need all of the things above, plus:
  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Coordination
  • Explosive strength
  • Fast reactions
  • Good timing

Some of these factors you can control or improve, others are out of your control. Your specific fitness is affected by:

Height, Weight and Somatotype: Your body size and shape can impact upon how suited you are to some sports

Illness and Injury: Either of these can be temporary or permanent in the way they affect your fitness levels

Psychological Factors: Stress and anxiety involved in work and training can affect our fitness

Disabilities: Some forms of disability can affect fitness for various activities. However you can still reach a high level of fitness in some disciplines

Alcohol, Drugs and Smoking: All of these have negative effetcs on both our general fitness, specific fitness and overall health

Diet: A good diet is balanced to provide all the nutrients we need to keep fit and healthy


Two very specific forms of fitness are cardiovascular fitness and muscular fitness:

Cardiovascular Fitness: This is the ability of your heart and lungs to keep your working muscles supplied with Oxygen

Muscular Fitness: When your muscles are strong and can apply a lot of force to push, pull, lift and throw things.




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