Here we explain the more scientific aspects including principles of training, fitness testing as well as the difference between health and skill related fitness.
In order to get the most out of your training, you must follow some basic simple training principles which are overload, specificity, reversability and variance. Overload means we must put our bodies under more stress than normal in order for adaptive changes to be made. Specificity relates to ensuring the training done is specific to the sport or activity. Reversability means if you don't keep it up you will lose it and variance relates to varying the training activities.
Fitness testing is a way of gaining information about the health related and skill related components of an athletes fitness. Testing can take place in a number of environments, with laboratory testing being the most accurate, however there is still a large range of tests that can be carried out, away from a lab, which provide a lot of useful information.
Fitness tests can be devised to test all aspects of fitness, providing the test follows fitness testing principles. The following are examples of simple fitess tests which can easily be reproduced away from a lab and measure strength, power, anaerobic endurance, local muscular endurance, aerobic endurance, flexibility, balance, reaction time and body composition.
Fitness is such a broad term and a complex subject which can include health and skill related fitness. Health related fitness is often divided into several other components which form our overall health status and include cardiovascular or aerobic fitness, strength and flexibility.