Air resistance is a frictional force which occurs when air passes over the surface of a body. This frictional force is not just limited to air though and it applies in fluids, usually water in a sporting situation. Air resistance, drag and fluid resistance mean the same thing.


Four things affect the amount of air resistance; the velocity of the body or air, the cross sectional area, the shape of the body and type of surface.

  • Velocity - the faster the body is travelling through a fluid (or air), the greater the air resistance. Can you think of three sports where this is relevant?
  • Cross sectional area - the greater the cross sectional area the greater the air resistance. Can you think of three sports where athletes try to reduce their cross sectional area as much as possible?
  • Shape - pointy shaped objects cut through air resistance more easily, for example an F1 car or the shape of a track cyclists helmet.
  • Surface - a rough surface will create more air resistance or drag than a smooth surface. Remember the Speedo LZR full body swimsuit which significantly enhanced a swimmers performance by holding the body in a more aerodynamic position and repelling water from the surface? The dimples on a golf ball actually decrease air resistance making a golf ball fly further through the air than a smooth ball (


An aerofoil is a streamlined shape which minimises cross secitonal area and drag of air passing around it.


Fluid Mechanics:

More Biomechanics: