Drugs in Sport

Here we explain the common drugs in sport, both illegal and for therapeautic purposes.

Hormone Antagonists and Modulators

Hormone antagonists and modulators, sometimes known as anti-oestrogenic substances act to either decrease the amount of oestrogen in the body or block the oestrogen receptors. Medical Uses of Hormone Antagonists and Modulators Some forms of Anti-oestrogenic drugs have been used in the treatment of breast cancer, contraception, osteoporosis and anovulatory infertility (infertility through cessation of …

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Glucocorticosteroids

Glucocorticosteroids are anti-inflammatory steroid hormones produced in the adrenal glands. Examples are Hydrocortisone, Prednisolone, and Prednisone. Medical Uses of Glucocorticosteroids Glucocorticosteroids are used as anti-inflammatories, in conditions such as severe asthma and allergic reactions. They are also used as immunosuppressants to prevent transplant rejection and in certain autoimmune disorders. Effects on Performance Some research has shown …

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Cannabinoids/Cannabis

Cannabinoids are a compound contained in the Marijuana plant and its products. The cannabinoid compound contains a substance called THC which has psychoactive properties. Due to the fast absorption rate of THC by the lungs, cannabinoids have a rapid onset, with the effect on the central nervous system being obvious within 20 minutes with a …

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Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1)

Insulin-like growth factor is the most predominant somatomedin or growth factor hormone, with a very similar structure to insulin although it is released by the liver. It plays an important role in growth and development in children and is thought to have anabolic effects in adults. Medical Uses of Insulin-like Growth Factor Uses for IGF-1 …

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Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG)

Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) is what’s known as a designer steroid. In this case, the steroid has been manipulated in a lab so that it is not detected by normal steroid testing procedures. After its discovery in 2003, a highly sensitive test has been developed to detect its presence in urine samples. Medical Uses of Tetrahydrogestrinone  There …

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Cocaine

Cocaine is a stimulant which is more commonly used as a recreational drug than for performance enhancement. Cocaine produces feelings of euphoria and wellbeing, which are usually followed by feelings of anxiety and depression when the effects of the drug wear off. Repeated use usually results in tachyphylaxis (a decreasing response to the drug) which …

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Gene Doping

Gene doping or transfer is based on the principles of gene therapy. Here a healthy gene is transplanted into cells or directly into the genome to replace a mutated or absent gene. Currently, this process is still in the research and trial stage. This process of gene doping, in the future, is likely to be …

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Anabolic Steroids

Sometimes also known as Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS’s), these are derivatives of the hormone testosterone. There are two types of AAS: Exogenous: Synthetic versions of testosterone. Common examples include Nandrolone and Danazol. Endogenous: Naturally occurring substances involved in the metabolic pathways of testosterone. When testing for drug use, all endogenous steroids have a normal range. Results outside …

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Beta-2-Agonists

Beta-2-Agonists are dilators which cause dilation (widening) of vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle surrounding them. Medical Uses of Beta-2-Agonists Inhaled forms of Beta-2-agonists (including salmeterol, salbutamol, formoterol, and terbutaline) are used for the treatment of Asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Injected forms are most commonly used in the prevention of premature labour, as they act to …

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