This section looks at memory, it's stores and methods to improve memory. (Equivalent to UK A Level Physical Education)
Without memory, information processing and skill learning is not possible. The memory is a complicated thing and the whole process of memorising a skill or event is not yet known.
The following tries to explain the process as it is understood so far:
- A stimulus triggers the senses (sight; sound; touch; smell; taste)
- The information received from the senses enters the Short-Term Sensory Store (STSS)
- It is stored here for a maximum of 1 second and is filtered down to relevant information (This process is known as Selective Attention)
- Irrelevant information is discarded
- The relevant information is passed to the Short-Term Memory (STM)
- Information is stored here on a limited capacity for up to 1 minute
- The information here is used to make decisions - these decisions are made more quickly if information from the long-term memory is used to compare with the current information
- Important information is moved onto the next stage:
- The Long-Term Memory (LTM) has a potentially endless capacity and can hold information for a long time, this is achieved by:
- Practicing skills or rehearsing information which strengthens the motor programme
- Association means the new information is linked to a previously stored memory
- Meaningfulness of the information helps you remember it
- Chunking and Chaining pieces of information together helps us remember them more easily
- Novelty - information which stands out from the crowd of other memories tends to be remembered!
There are thought to be three main areas of storage within the LTM:
- Procedural: This is where motor programmes are stored as it contains the information allowing us to remember how to do things
- Semantic: This area contains knowledge and facts
- Episodic: This is where personal experiences and events are kept.