Hormone antagonists and modulators, sometimes known as anti-oestrogenic substances act to either decrease the amount of oestrogen in the body or block the oestrogen receptors.
Medical Uses of Hormone Antagonists and Modulators
Some forms of Anti-oestrogenic drugs have been used in the treatment of breast cancer, contraception, osteoporosis and anovulatory infertility (infertility through cessation of ovulation).
Effects on Performance
The anti-oestrogenic drugs Tamoxifen and Clomiphene are used by both male and female athletes. Males use Tamoxifen in conjunction with Anabolic Steroids in an attempt to prevent gynecomastia (the development of oversized mammary glands in males). It is also used to increase testosterone levels.
Female bodybuilders and weight lifters have been known to use Tamoxifen as blocking the oestrogen receptors leave testosterone unopposed, leading to an increase in masculine features.
Side-Effects of Hormone Antagonists and Modulators
- Deep vein thrombosis in females
- Abdominal pain
- Joint aches and stiffness