Anatomy & Physiology

Blood Composition & Function

Blood has many functions including transportation of nutrients around the body, maintaining homeostasis and the immune system. It is made up of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Function of Blood Transportation: The blood carries other substances around the body inside Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries. These include gasses (Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide), …

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Neck and Back Muscles

The major muscles of the neck and back include: the erector spinae, multifidus, rectus abdominus, transversus abdominus, internal obliques, external obliques, splenius, and quadratus lumborum. Quadratus Lumborum The quadratus lumborum (QL) is a common muscle that is often associated with lower back pain; correct stretching of the QL can help ease this pain. Splenius Splenius …

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Lower Leg & Ankle Muscles

The muscles of the lower leg consist of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles which together are known as the calf muscles, the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus. Extensor Digitorum Longus The Extensor Digtitorum Longus muscle is one of the …

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Hip & Groin Muscles

The main hip & groin muscles consist of the iliopsoas, pectineus, rectus femoris, and sartorius at the front. The gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, piriformis, tensor fasciae latae on the outside. Gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus at the back and the adductor or groin muscles (adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor Magnus, and gracilis). Gracilis Gracilis …

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Thigh & Knee Muscles

The knee joint consists of the femur (thigh bone), tibia and fibula bones of the lower leg and the patella or kneecap. The muscles which flex and extend (bend and straighten) the joint are the quadriceps muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis) and the hamstring muscles at the back of the thigh (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, …

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Wrist & Hand Muscles

The main muscles which move the wrist and hand consist of the flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, flexor digitorum superficiialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, extensor digitorum, extensor indicis, extensor digiti minimi, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and adductor …

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Elbow Joint Muscles

The elbow joint consists of the humerus (upper arm bone), radius and ulna in the forearm. The ulna is the bone on the little finger side of the forearm (remember l in ulna for little finger) and the radius radiates around it. The elbow joint muscles are the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, triceps brachii (triceps …

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