# Biomechanics

## Fluid Mechanics In Sport

Fluid mechanics or fluid dynamics comes into sport a lot and covers air resistance, drag, projectiles, spin on balls and Bernoulli principle and lift force. Spin Spin is created by applying a force that is off centre to the object being thrown (or kicked) at the point of release. The effects of spin are important …

## Angular Motion In Biomechanics

Angular motion includes rotating bodies, levers, stability, moment of force/torque, axis of rotation, moment of inertia and angular momentum. Lever Systems A lever is a rigid bar that moves on a fixed point called the fulcrum when a force is applied to it. Movement is made possible in the human body by lever systems that …

## Linear Motion & Biomechanics

Linear motion simply means motion in a straight line (as opposed to circular motion or rotation). In order to talk about linear motion scientifically, we need to be familiar with mass, distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Here we explain Newtonâ€™s laws of motion, mass, inertia, momentum, speed, velocity, distance, displacement and graphs of motion. …

## Forces In Biomechanics

A force is a push or a pull which alters the state of motion of a body and is measured in Newtons (N). Here we cover balanced and unbalanced forces, friction, air resistance, impulse, force-time graphs, and free body diagrams. Free Body Diagrams Free body diagrams are used to show which forces are acting on …

## Lever Systems In Biomechanics

A lever system is a rigid bar that moves on a fixed point called the fulcrum when a force is applied to it. Movement is made possible in the human body by lever systems that are formed by our muscles and joints working together. An understanding of the levers in the body helps us to …

## Angular Momentum In Sport

Angular momentum can be defined as the movement of a mass when it is rotating or spinning. You may have seen a situation when a person in a tucked position spins faster or than someone in an extended position. Here we explane angular momentum in sport. To explain the movement of a mass when it …

## Spin & The Magnus Effect

Spin is created by applying a force that is off centre to the object being thrown (or kicked) at the point of release. The effects of spin are important in all ball sports and throwing events. The Magnus effect explains why the paths of balls deviate from normal flight path.

## Projectiles In Sport

A projectile is anybody which is thrown or jumped into the air. Once it has left the ground it will follow a flight path called a parabola until it once more comes back down to earth. This applies to balls, javelins, discus, long jumpers, high jumpers, and horses showjumping. As far as we know there …

## Bernoulli Principle

The Bernoulli principle explains why aeroplanes fly and racing cars stick to the ground going around corners when they really shouldn’t. It is to do with lift force and downforce created when air flows over an aerofoil. The Dutch-Swiss mathematician, Daniel Bernoulli, discovered that where there is an increase in the velocity of fluid there …

## Air Resistance and Drag

Air resistance is a frictional force that occurs when air passes over the surface of a body. This frictional force is not just limited to air though and it applies in fluids, usually water in a sporting situation. Air resistance, drag, and fluid resistance mean the same thing. Four things affect the amount of air resistance; …

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